In his reply the first group asked whether it was the rule that the elder of two kinsmen should step down to let the junior take his place. British culture, customs and traditions vary from the weird to the wonderful, from the traditional to the popular, and from the simple to the grand. In Nigeria, some families are known to be masqueraders and some even bear a name related to masquerades Ayegba, for example, ranks as the founder of the dynasty in the sense that he forms the apical ancestor of the royal house, and in the sense that he is said to have fought a war which freed Igala from Junkun control. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY MJ Maluleke* Culture is like an umbrella under which some people like to hide from rain, and also to shade themselves from the sun. Clifford argued that a breakaway group of Jukun moved eastwards from Wukari, staying just south of the Benue, and that they settled at Amagedde. The Italian culture is … But I have argued elsewhere that this myth is a symbolic claim to Benin origins. The greater Los Angeles metro area has several notable art museums including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), the J. Paul Getty Museum on the Santa Monica mountains overlooking the Pacific, the Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), and the Hammer Museum. The other official language is English, which is used by the government and for legal matters. But Swedish culture is much more – food, music, fashion, film, gaming and sports. But this kind of chronological reconstruction makes an assumption, which seems to be false in the Igala case, though I would not argue that it is false in all cases. It's used to celebrate the Japanese Obon holiday , a time of year when it's believed that the spirits of loved ones return to the world. The confluence area, like Poland in Europe, seems to have been pulled in different directions at different periods. Those living at home said that it would fall on the senior brother, but the other party refused, on the grounds that the younger brother had been given the insignia of office, and still had them in his possession. And elsewhere he says that the Jukun tradition is the one most in favour with the royal house. Despite Urdu being the main language in the country, only 8% of the population uses it as a primary language. Swedish culture & traditions include magical mythical Midsummer and Lucia. This divergence and the existence of different theories about the origins of the kingship are an essential feature of Igala oral tradition, and to emphasize only one of these views or even to try to select between the traditions, carries the risk of misrepresenting the nature of the historical corpus and of missing its essential point. Today, I outline broadly for our consideration, the various traditions of Igala origin. Constitutionally the king’s position was more like that of a Yoruba oba than that of a strong ruler like the Oba of Benin. IGALA HISTORY, CULTURE AND TRADITION DEBATE has 13,395 members Jump to Sections of this page Accessibility Help Press alt + / to open this menu Facebook Email or Phone Password Forgot account? For instance, the royal clan is concerned with legitimating its right to rule, and bases this claim on the principle of descent from older dynasties in other kingdoms. The time-span is conventionally defined by associating each major change, with one reign or one generation. Dialects include Ebu, Idah, Imane, Ankpa, Dekina, Ogugu, Ibaji and Ife. Instead it takes a synoptic view of the past, compressing events and developments that must have covered many centuries into single reigns. Igala tradition is a product of culture and an integral part of African culture. The remaining 4% of residents include North Africans, Italo-Albanians, Albanians, Germans, Austrians and other European groups. In Igala tradition, for example, a clan can be descended from a leopard, because the leopard symbolizes the principle of royal descent and the inherent right of persons of royal descent to rule over others. When the younger brother came at last to cross over to Idah, the people around noticed the things that he was carrying and reported to the elders at home that a stranger was coming with some amazing things. This antithesis corresponds to a basic. ”Suffice to mention that Attah Igala stool is a sacred one imbued with a high level of traditional paraphernalia and the act of announcing the demise in a speculative manner is a … The elders themselves went to look, and decided that the stranger was a man of truth, so they invited him to settle with them and become their Ata. It is a superpower in Asia.. Hence, Igala are descended from Egypt, Yemen or Ethiopia. When the Igala wish to identify their nation and its land, they talk of an’Ayegba, Ayegba’s land. division in the Igala political system between the kind of powers of legislation and sovereignty that are vested in the royal group, and the powers of local administration and eventual control of the royal group that are vested in non-royal clans throughout Igala. But these are mere romantic speculations, there are no substances. in the north-east of Igala, before finally moving from there across country to Idah. The following legend, collected in I960, claims a historical link between the Igala and Benin royal dynasties through the migration from Benin to Idah of a brother of the Oba of Benin. These ethnic groups are also found in Cambodia, Malaysia, Laos, and Myanmar, and have influenced the traditional, national and global culture of Thailand. The best thing I can do to prevent this is to go away and leave the matter to be settled by God.’ So he went away, and was followed by the Bini who are the ancestors of the people in the country opposite Idah, right up to Asaba (Achaba) and Kukuruku (Ingele). The place of GOOD name in Igala worldview, ABOMI IGALA: Stop Insulting the Royal Stool of Igala Pride, #OmalaKillings: “The military must leave our land,” Onu Ife (Ojogba) warns, Nine Igala LGAs reject cattle colony in Kogi state, IGALA-HAUSA/FULANI RELATIONS (1818-2018): Past, Present and What Future ? Black and yellow colors symbolize fertility of a couple. So I would argue that all the traditions are equally valid, and that the first task of historical analysis in this case is to provide a framework within which the divergent views can be reconciled and synthesized. As in the Yoruba kingdoms, a strong ruler could improve his position against that of the provincial chiefs. But this attribution of time is purely conventional, and stands for the passage of a much longer period if we think in objective terms of the probable time span of Igala history. To simplify the many problems of analysis that are present in oral tradition, I shall concentrate on certain crucial problems. Clifford for example, did this, in the case of the Igala, and assigns the colonization of the Agatu area from Wukari to the beginning of the seventeenth century, and Ayegbaâs arrival at Idah to the later part of the same century. Igala kingship has also been connected by tradition with Yoruba, and the explorers who ascended the Niger in the nineteenth century were given various explanations of this connexion.5 Unlike Clifford, we should take all these different claims seriously as forming a set of divergent views about the origin of Igala kingship. The Igalapedia Project The Igalapedia project coined from Igala Encyclopedia is an NGO initiated to promote African Culture and Tradition. The Igala, Yoruba and Itsekiri form a subfamily of the Benue-Congo group. Elements of a culture passed down as… Culture vs Tradition Culture and traditions are similar meaning terms and concepts used commonly by us in conversation. Chinese immigrants have significantly influenced the country’s culture especially in major cities such as Bangkok. Different versions of Oral tradition concerning the origin of Idah and the entire Igala have been given. This is tied to the mystery of the number 9 among the Igala. Ayegba is a mythical figure, and in the indigenous perspective of Igala tradition he stands for a long period of creative political evolution, which is not necessarily bound by the conventions of time that we would apply to the possibilities of royal achievement. They wore them to keep their feet dry during the long, humid, and wet days they spent outside. Igala is divided into clans, and its political structure is based on a system in which clans perform political functions at either the central level, in the capital, or at the provincial level or at the local level in the districts. This third problem is one that holds the key to the other two. The country’s population speaks more than 60 languages. The political principle with which these early myths are concerned is the principle of descent, and they make an antithesis between the facts of royal, descent and non-royal descent. and change, and with the structure that was produced by their interaction. In the Igala case it is wrong to assume that the traditions are based on a unilinear concept of time in which events follow one another in the strict order of historical sequence. Stone age, iron age…. Green is a traditional color not only for Igala people but also for the whole Africa. Hence, no one can say with certainty where the Igala came from. In the Igala case these are three in number. The Yoruba word “Igala” means Antelope which is Ọchachakolo in … Igala is a Volta–Niger language. To anticipate an Igala nation that is once again culturally rich, globally aware, technologically advanced and politically smart, we need looking back to our origin, the rich past and boldly work towards an exciting Igala future, where we can competently participate in the ongoing global trends. While presenting Igala Land, Language and her people as a true portrayal of African identity, we pilot program for developing indigenous Nigerian languages and also teach how to speak the Igala language. The communities founded by hunters are those which have introduced a new factor into the static situation created by the opposition of royal to non-royal descent. Tradition vs. Culture: Why The Japanese Remove Their Shoes Around 2,300 years ago , Japanese people began to wear shoes to aid in rice cultivation. At times the Igala haveÂ been oriented towards the Yoruba, at other times towards Benin, or again, later on, towards the Jukun empire, and they themselves have exercised a considerable influence on surrounding peoples such as the Idoma, theÂ Northern Ibo and the Nupe. Now this chief and his wife quarreled, and because the wife hated her husband, when she delivered a male child she did not take it for her husband to see. Levi-Strauss argues that in mythical thought the argument proceeds from a concept of structure to a fact or a set of events whose function it is to make the structure apparent. The table of rulers given here provides exact dates from 1834 onwards, and shows that between 1834 and 1956 there were ten rulers. So the Onu took all the insignia of his title, even down to the hat that the chief wore, and had all these things placed in a neighbouring town for the second child, who later on became chief of that place. But to regard this development as the achievement of a single person, accomplished within one reign, is a good example of the fallacy of misplaced concreteness applied to historical thinking. (Pt2), Ukomu Igala decry rising insecurity in Igala land, Ębo moji ji, ęnwu ma ñō gō gę? Hence, the origin of the Igala is Igala. Here, I have just recalled the various A socio-cultural group, the UKOMU Igala in The Diaspora has called on Igala ruling houses to ensure seamless process in selection of successor … The Yorubas shares no cultural affinity with the igalas. In the past the Bini used to send eight slaves to Idah to be made eunuchs whenever a new Oba was appointed, and the Ata used to keep four of these eunuchs and send the other four back to the Oba. The Igala are located at one of the natural crossroads in Nigerian geography, the Niger-Benue confluence, and this has brought them into contact with a wide range of peoples. Igala traditional attire The predominant colors of the traditional marriage in Igala Land are yellow, black, green and white. This claims that the Igala existed before any reliable historical means of recording origin came into existence. These scholarsbelieve that there were many antelopes during the early migration of the Igalasinto the land; hence the name. The Eri-Igala connection is one promising area of research needing a more robust interrogation. 460,000. But this argument that most of the Igala believe in a Jukun origin for their royal house gives an entirely false impression of unanimity and agreement in the oral traditions. Among them all, Urdu is the national language with a huge portion of speakers at 75%. This legend is current in the ruling subclan of the Igala royal house. Italy is a peninsula in southern Europe. jurisdiction over homicide, and succession to their own offices. Tradition holds that … The Japanese tradition of floating lanterns in rivers, known as Toro Nagashi is a ceremony that represents the journey of souls to the afterlife. One other aristocratic clan which I should mention is the clan of the Achadu, who is head of the kingmakers and holds the Igala Mela group together-though in fact the Achadu’s clan, like the royal clan, is of immigrant origin and traces its descent to an Ibo who came into the Igala area for hunting. Oji/Ori, Omi/Omi, Achadu/Asiwaju…. Culture Tradition A body of knowledge comprising language, art, clothing and traditions A set of rituals practiced by a group of people Defines human behavior in a specific space Dictates human behavior on a specific They have modified existing structural alignments and catalysed tendencies that were present in the former system. That the Igala people descended from the sky-god. It has approximately 61 million inhabitants, 96% of whom are Italians. A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Mythical thought, to quote from Levi-Strauss, ‘starts from a structure by means of which it constructs a set (object and event)’. Latest News, Information, History, Archive, Photo, Gallery and Videos about Igala Land. We exist and there are no conclusive evidences that we came from anywhere or broke up from any other group. Similarly Ayegbaâs reign uses the conventional idiom of one king’s achievements to illustrate the. But in addition to this binary pair, the myths also introduce the principle of non-descent, the principle of achievement, represented by the stereotype of the hunter who plays such an important part in Igala myths of origin. He does not say explicitly how he arrived at this date, but after comparing his article with unpublished notes by Clifford and other government officers in the files at Idah, I am convinced that he worked out the average reign of the kings for whom we. IF we assume, as we surely can, that the Niger and Benue rivers played an even more strategic role in the Nigerian past than they do today, thenÂ it is clear that the Igala area holds the key to an important chapter of Nigerian history, a chapter which particularly concerns the problem ofÂ interrelations between different groups in Nigeria. The indigenous population of Igala is represented politically, and in the oral traditions, by a group of clans called the Igala Mela, who are supposed to have occupied Idah from the beginning. The major consideration is the culture and tradition. My eclectic writings about my own people, the Igala, sit with these expectations. The royal dynasty in Igala is an immigrant one. This argument led to fighting, and to so much killing that the junior brother said ‘If this goes on, my father’s people will wipe each other out and the family will perish for the sake of a title. The Bible refers to Egypt as “the land of Ham” in Psalms.78:51. The nine councils each has a chief (Onuh who is appointed by religious rite through a complex system of traditional rite and proceedings supervised by the head of the council the Attah Igala in Idah.The nine councils are referred to as Igalamela-Odolu. Those that grew tired on the way stopped wherever they liked and were left behind. To compare Ayegba with the later Igala kings is like comparing King Arthur, or the popular image of William the Conqueror, with the later kings and queens in English history, or Oduduwa with the present Oni of Ife. The royal dynasty in Igala is an immigrant one. This is built on the idea of the “Ojale m’ebie, ane m’ebie” the seven heavens and seven earth hierarchies. This gives an average reign of twelve years, and if this average is applied to the full king list, which varies between twenty-five and twenty-seven names, it produces a hypothetical time span of 300 or 325 years. According to the elders of Igala tribe, black and yellow colours means a lot to the history of Igala Kingdom. Igala land has nine traditional ruling councils including the capital Idah. Here, I have just recalled the various conjectures of where the Igala may have come from. The Igala form a kingdom whose ruler, the Ata, has his capital at Idah on the river Niger. The indigenous population of Igala is represented politically, and in the oral traditions, by a group of clans called the Igala Mela, who are supposed to have occupied Idah from the beginning. For the most part, the mas… The greeting is an important part of the social culture of the Thai. Where are we? Whereas the principle of descent or ascribed status stands for continuity in the political system, the principle of achievement stands for change and realignment. Black colour shows the richness of Igala land. Long ago, there was a chief of Benin (Onu Ibini) who came to the throne when it was the rule that the first son born to the Oba should succeed him on the throne. The Yoruboid/Benue-Congo language tradition. principle of national sovereignty, and the reconciliation within the institution of kingship of the conflicting tendencies that are present in the Igala political system. They act as kingmakers in the political system, and also control an earth cult which symbolizes the fertility and benevolence of the land throughout the Igala kingdom. The Yoruba, Benin, and Jukun traditions manage to co-exist because they refer to a period which is indistinct from a strictly historical point of view. To find a solution to the problem I now move on to the second major problem, which is that of chronology. Let us go on to examine this diversity in more detail, concentrating in particular on the problems surrounding the origin and introduction of the kingship. The Igala traditions are partly mythological in character, and the early period does not have the same time value as the latter part of the dynastic record. Where did we come from? The name Igala is said to have beencoined from a Yoruba name for antelope (Igala) by some scholars. : Dethroning the merchants of falsehood, IHIá»GIDI: Duty to Defend Igala Culture and Traditional Institutions, THE IGALA KINGDOM: 200 years of Expansion, Colonisation and Dispersion (1630-1830), Kogi State Governor: An Example of a Squandered Opportunity, The Attah Igala Throne and Igala Kingmakers, A call to unity for the greater good of Igala…, Oral Tradition and the History of Igala (Pt I), THE IGALA KINGDOM: 200 years of Expansion, Colonisation and Dispersion…, Kogi Guber: Dissecting Igala Unity – A Stitch In Time, Fulani Pastoralist and Violence Accruals: The Igala and Fulani Interactions in Historical…, The Commencement of Ethnic Cleansing by the Bassa Kwomu Ethnic Nationality in…, #OmalaKillings: “The military must leave our land,” Onu Ife (Ojogba) warns, Nine Igala LGAs reject cattle colony in Kogi state, IGALA-HAUSA/FULANI RELATIONS (1818-2018): Past, Present and What Future ? Rule number one: Never forget where you came from. The first tradition says “Igala” is a derivative of the Yoruba name for antelope (Igala). Myth is concerned with structure in the abstract; history is concerned with process and with the detailed workings of a structure in time. He quotes a story by the French traveller Burdo, for instance, which connects Igala with Yoruba, and dismisses this as being ingenious but fantastic. Where do we want to be? It stands for much more than the image of an actual leopard. The formation of the ideas, celebrations and notions that comprise today’s quintessential British lifestyle started centuries ago, giving importance and meaning to the people’s existence. more concerned with the relationship of structural principles to one another; history with discovering laws of objective causality. But basically the kingdom conformed to what Southall calls the pyramidal or federated type rather than to the other type of kingdom, like Benin, in which power is strongly centralized. The combination of these factors seems to have encouraged Clifford to emphasize traditions of a Jukun origin for the Igala kingship, and to argue that the first Igala kings, who took over from the Igala Mela at Idah, came from Wukari. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. China, the most populous country in the world. From this … Many of us believe the two concepts are so similar that they can be used interchangeably. The Igala Ata ruled over a loosely federated kingdom in which the major provinces were organized and behaved like petty kingdoms. Hence, based on linguistic affinities and similarities, Igala origin is conjectured. Send post to email address, comma separated for multiple emails. But by his own merits, by the principle of achievement, he becomes head of the kingmakers and unites the indigenous population, represented by the Igala Mela, into a corporate group, which becomes able to exercise ritual authority over the royal group, and over the king in particular. The Igala Kingdom was founded by Abutu-Eje in the 7thcentury. And it excludes the influence that Igala itself has had on surrounding areas. I select this small group of clans-the royal clan, the Igala Mela, and the Achadu’s clan-for special emphasis, because their traditions provide a framework that helps to co-ordinate the notions held in other, less important clans concerning origins and the sequence of time. When two p… In addition to being a national language, Urdu is also a symbol of the Muslims as well as the lingua franca (or common language) of the country. Igala kingship has also been connected by tradition with Yoruba, and the explorers who ascended the Niger in the nineteenth century were given various explanations of this connexion.5 Unlike Clifford, we should take all these So says, Jonathan Sacks, the prolific British rabbi. Abutu Eje, for instance, is chiefly remembered because of his associations with the leopard myth; his name Eje, leopard, is a symbol of his descent from this mythical founder of the royal clan. After this, the new Ata sent his own child back to Benin with a message to say that the elder brother could be given the Oba’s title as he himself was more than satisfied with his new title of Ata. Flavius Josephus and others speculated that black people who populated Africa and adjoining parts of Asia are descendant of Biblical Ham, son of Noah. As my friend, Atayi Babs projects, our aim in contemporary Nigerian discourse is to raise the intellectual tone of the Igala society, cultivate the public mind, purify the Igala taste while supplying true principles to popular enthusiasms and fixed aims to popular aspirations as well as giving enlargement and sobriety to the ideals of Igala renaissance. A slightly different version of royal origins claims that the first king, Abute Eje, was fathered by a leopard. : Dethroning the merchants of falsehood, IHIỌGIDI: Duty to Defend Igala Culture and Traditional Institutions, THE IGALA KINGDOM: 200 years of Expansion, Colonisation and Dispersion (1630-1830), History is the answer to the question, “What happened?” Memory is an answer to the question, “Who am I?”. The third problem is the problem of separating the political facets of the traditions from their historical functions. To distinguish between myth and legendary history, the distinction made by Levi-Strauss between myth and art may be useful, with his definition of myth corresponding to my characterization of the early period of Igala oral tradition, and his definition of art corresponding to that of legends whose function is more strictly historical. The provincial chiefs were relatively autonomous in their provincial capitals, and were only subject to the king in certain sovereign matters such as the payment of tribute. Political Acrimony: Who Built Igala House? For this reason I begin with a brief sketch of the Igala political system, and try to show how this inevitably brings diversity into the body of oral tradition. By paying special attention to the Jukun tradition of origin, Clifford gives the impression that other traditions of origin for the Igala kingship were either non-existent or else of no importance. In 1989 an estimated 800,000 spoke Igala, primarily in Kogi State, but also in fringe portions of Delta State (Ebu), Edo State and Anambra state. Ukomu IGALA writes President Buhari on cattle colony, Adavi and Ajaokuta to provide 15,000 hectares of land for cattle colony, Kogi State Governor: An Example of a Squandered Opportunity, The Attah Igala Throne and Igala Kingmakers, A call to unity for the greater good of Igala…, Oral Tradition and the History of Igala (Pt I), THE IGALA KINGDOM: 200 years of Expansion, Colonisation and Dispersion…, IGALA NATION: Understanding the times and season, UWÉ ÕMA ÉNÉ DÉ? Have covered many centuries into single reigns, Yoruba and Itsekiri form a kingdom whose ruler, various! These expectations the sky god had children who started out communities like Aguleri, and! Current in the Igala kingdom to another of variants in the world to another an ’ Ayegba, is... 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